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Terminology



The Network

Internet

- the name given to the collective electronic network of computers and computer networks which are inter-connected throughout the world - started with the ARPAnet at the US Dept. of Defense.

USENET

- the name given to the computer network which carries newsgroups - newsgroups are arranged in heirarchies based loosely on subject matter - the USENET is often confused with the INTERNET in the news media - started by two students at Duke University.

WorldWideWeb - WWW - W3

- the name given to the collection of computers which serve information in hypertext format.

HTTPD

- Hyper-text Transfer Protocol Daemon a computer program which manages the transfer of hyper-text and multimedia documents over the INTERNET.

HTML

- Hyper Text Markup Language the text markup language used to insert tags which allow a Web browser to correctly display a hyper-text document. HTML1, HTML +, HTML 2 and HTML 3 are versions of HTML in use at this time. HTML is a subset of the Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) first invented to display legal texts and now the world standard for large documentation projects.

VRML - Virtual Reality Modeling Language a tagging language for conveying three dimensional information over the Internet using a VRML browser.

Hypertext

- documents which contain links to other documents within them - footnotes are a form of hypertext link.

Multimedia

- documents which contain text, sound, graphics and video elements that are all capable of being displayed to the user.

Hypermedia

- documents which combine hypertext links and multimedia elements.

NNTPD

- the network news transfer protocol daemon which serves USENET newsgroups across the Internet.

NNTP Server

- the computer which you connect to to receive USENET newsgroups and post USENET news articles.

DNS

- the Domain Name System which identifies each computer as a network node on the Internet using an internet protocol address system to translate from domain names to IP numbers and vice-versa.

DNS Server

- the computer you use to access the DNS to allow you to contact other computers on the Internet.

FAQ

- Frequently Asked Questions document which answers FAQs about various subjects.

RFC

- Request for Comments a document which defines Internet operating protocols - despite the name it is more a statement of agreed standards than a request.

Internet Access Provider (IAP)/Internet Service Provider (ISP)

- an organization or commercial enterprise which provides access to the Internet.

Access Methods

Dial-up

- a computer connection that is brought up and brought down as needed - a simple version is dialing in to a servive provider over a modem as a dumb terminal - SLIP and PPP can also be dial-up connections - also known as a switched connection.

Dumb Terminal

- when a computer is running a terminal emulation program while connected to another computer.

SLIP

- Serial Line Internet Protocol a non-standard method of electronically connecting a remote computer to an IP network as a node on the network most popular method at present to use graphical browsers on the Internet - first used to connect ham radios to the Internet.

PPP

- Point to Point Protocol an Internet standard for electronically connectiong a remote computer to an IP network - the method slowly replacing SLIP.

Ethernet

- a method for directly connecting a computer to a network in the same physical location - much faster connection than SLIP or PPP.

Wireless Network

- a method using infra-red, ultra-violet or radio waves, of connecting computers into a network.

ISDN - Integrated Services Digital Network

- a digital telephone network that allows personal home computers to connect to remote networks.

Modem

- a device that modulates and demodulates telephone toned to allow for the multiplexing of information on the telephone network.

Cable Modem

- a device that allows a computer to connect to a cable television system and connect to a computer network - cable modems work at speeds approaching Ethernet connections - probable wide-spread future way to connect to the Internet.

Internet Tools

FTP - File Transfer Protocol

- a method of serving and obtaining files over the Internet.

telnet - a method of logging into another computer as a terminal on that computer.

NFS - Network File System

- a set of protocols that allow transparent access to a remote computers file system - another type is the Andrew File System (AFS).

gopher

- a method of serving or retrieving files over the Internet - it has largely been replaced by the Web.

Browser

- a client program that retrieves documents and other materials from an HTTPD server and displays them in accord with the HTML specification - MOSAIC was the first widely available browser - CELLO was the second browser - NETSCAPE is the most used browser at this time.

WinSock

- a specification for a program that implements a "socket" connection under the MS Windows environment - a winsock is needed for SLIP or PPP connections under WINDOWS.

MACTCP

- a program used on Macintosh computers to provide socket connections for SLIP and PPP connections.

EMail

a software application that allows one to exchange messages with someone else.

IRC - Internet Relay Chat

- a method for serving and retrieving connections for real-time conferencing over computer networks.

WAIS - Wide Area Information Service

- a method of finding information on the Internet.

archie

- a system to find files available for retrieval by FTP.

veronica

- a system for finding files available from GOPHER servers. White Pages

- lists of Internet users

TN3270

- a terminal emulation of an IBM 3270 terminal.

VT100

- a terminal emulation of a DEC VT100 terminal.

CU-SeeMe

- a program for sending and receiving video and audio over the Internet - also contains a conferencing program and whiteboard facility.